Most dinosaur skeletons are found lying on their sides, but not the armored dinosaurs: ankylosaurs and their cousins the nodosaurs are usually found upside down! Conventional scientists have proposed a number of ideas to explain this phenomenon over the years, with some suggesting they were flipped onto their backs by hungry carnivores so they could eat the soft underbelly, while others believed armored dinosaurs were simply clumsy and ended up tripping over themselves or rolling down hills and ended up dying that way. In a recent research paper, Dr. Jordan Mallon of the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa, Ontario and team examined 36 ankylosaur specimens from all over Alberta and found that 26 (over 70%) were deposited upside-down. They carefully examined the bones for bite marks and reported only 1 out of 32 ankylosaurs (specimens that had a sufficient number of bone fossils to study bite marks) had any evidence of carnivore activity. With the use of computer models, Dr. Mallon and the other scientists determined that the best explanation for the upside-down ankylosaurs was that their carcasses were in the water, where they bloated and were overturned before their final deposition in an underwater environment. The study authors also pointed out that ankylosaurs and nodosaurs are commonly found in marine sediments. Did all of these ankylosaurs and nodosaurs just so happen to fall into rivers, float out to sea and somehow were not consumed by scavengers or decomposition before being covered by enough sediment to protect them? That's doubtful. The global Flood of Genesis provides a better explanation; the floodwaters would have quickly inundated and drowned the dinosaurs before allowing them to float in the water, overturn and then be deposited in marine sediments quick enough to preserve their bones as the fossils we find today.
Mallon, J. C. et al. 2018. A “bloat-and-float” taphonomic model best explains the upside-down preservation of ankylosaurs. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 497: 117-127.
Atheists are obsessed with The God of the Bible, but why? Possibly because their heart is hardened towards authority— just as a child in rebellion against his parents throwing a tantrum. —————————————————————————(Romans 1:19-20)”since what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of the world God's invisible qualities--his eternal power and divine nature--have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that people are without excuse.”
If only Christians could show half of the same passion. 🤷🏼♀️
Update: When I first posted this infographic, I had made a few slight errors, which have since been corrected.
This infographic is a reference illustrating the distribution off all the known integument preservation for Tyrannosaurus rex. This should only be used as a reference for specifically Tyrannosaurus rex as it does not include the scale or “feather” preservation of any other Tyrannosauroid species. The majority of these integument preservations are from the specimen HMNS 2006. 743.2, also known as “Wyrex” which preserved several small patches of integument from the neck, pelvis and base of the tail. However, there are also several other unpublished specimens included, which also preserve integument. Specimens such as The Montana Dueling Dinosaurs specimen, which preserved a patch of integument on the metatarsals and the Dietrich's Skin Impressions, which were discovered on the dorsal side of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae. These are all skin impressions known from Tyrannosaurus but are currently unpublished thus their exact position on the body should be taken with a pinch of salt.
All of the integument impressions currently known from Tyrannosaurus consist of simply small bead like scales only a few millimetres in diameter; however, they do vary in shape and size slightly as can be seen in the line drawing of the neck impression from HMNS 2006. 743.2. It has been suggested that the scales observed in large Tyrannosaurids are analogous to the reticula or avian scales found in modern birds, which are actually highly modified feathers that have stunted to appear more like scales. It the scale like structures seen in Tyrannosaurus are similar to these avian scales then it is possible that large Tyrannosaurids evolved from an ancestor covered in more filamentous integument. This would also be the common ancestor of the Proceratosaurids, Yutyrannus and Dilong. These more basal Tyrannosauroids retained their filamentous integument as opposed to Tyrannosaurids, which lost it.